Option Long option Description
-a –all List all files, even those with names that begin
with a period, which are normally not listed
(i.e., hidden).
-d –directory Ordinarily, if a directory is specified, ls will
list the contents of the directory, not the
directory itself. Use this option in
conjunction with the -l option to see details
about the directory rather than its contents.
-F –classify This option will append an indicator character
to the end of each listed name. For example,
a “/” if the name is a directory.
-h –human-readable In long format listings, display file sizes in
human readable format rather than in bytes.
-l Display results in long format.
-r –reverse Display the results in reverse order.
Normally, ls displays its results in ascending
alphabetical order.
-S Sort results by file size.
-t Sort by modification time.

Long display fields: file, rights, number of hard links, user name of the files owner, name of the group which owns the file, file size, timestamp of last modification, file name
access rights; -rw-r–r–

  • first letter: -=regular file, d=dir, l=link
  • next three chars are access rights of the owner, then group user and then everyone else